Ioannis S Patrikios
European University, Cyprus
Ioannis S. Patrikios completed his PhD studies in Medical Biochemistry in 1994, from the Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, USA.Professor Patrikios went through several different fellowships including research specializations /collaborations with different high reputation institutions including, Mount Sinai NY and Albert Einstein and was awarded advanced Immunology specialization courses at ScuolaSuperiored'ImmunologiaRuggeroCeppellini, Italy.In the year 2000 he repatriated to Cyprus. Recently he was offered and now serves as a Fellow of the Academy of Forensic Medical Science, UK and member of the Advisory Board. His 2002 research findings on the effect of frying oils as human hemagglutinins got an international interest. Among others in 2016 he was appointed as Editor of the International Scientific Journal “EC Neurology”. He is a member of several International associations and bodies including Sigma Xi. He is the scientific investigator of the team that lately invented and patented the nutraceutical formula Neuroaspis® PLP10 as a new therapeutic intervention for multiple sclerosis. At present, he serves as the Chairman of the School of Medicine, European University Cyprus and affiliated as a research collaborator at the Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Cyprus.
Neurodegeneration is an inflammatory-related process with myelin composed of ~80% lipid. holistic, nutritional systems biology might be the answer to MS; stay away or delve right in?
The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of membrane phospholipids plays an important role in immune-related and non-immune-related inflammation. PUFA and antioxidant deficiencies, along with decreased cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, have been reported in MS patients. The cause of PUFA deficiencies is not entirely clear and may involve metabolic and nutritional alterations. Increased or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to several different acute and chronic diseases, and it is characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines, arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids (prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes (TXs), leukotrienes (LTs) and other oxidised derivatives), and other inflammatory agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and adhesion molecules. During inflammation, glutamate homeostasis is altered by the release of increased quantities of glutamate by activated immune cells, which can result in the over activation of glutamate receptors and, in turn, excitotoxicoligodendroglial death. Among others, membrane-related pathology, immune-mediated inflammation, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity provide potentially useful combined targets for intervention in MS. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LA) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA) can be implicated and modulate almost all known complex networks of events and pathways in MS pathophysiology. The brain membrane fatty acid composition can be modified with dietary supplementation, but the process has been shown to be age dependent (taking much longer in adults vs developing brains) and possibly dependent on the quantity of the dietary/supplemented PUFAs. The anti-inflammatory properties of Ω-3 PUFAs include the production of PGs and TXs of the 3-series and of LTs of the 5-series. Resolvins and protectins are biosynthesised from Ω-3 fatty acids via cyclooxygenase-2/lipoxygenase (COX-2/LOX) pathways, and they promote the control of inflammation in neural tissues. T-cell proliferation in acute and chronic inflammation can also be reduced by supplementation with either Ω-6 or Ω-3 PUFAs. Furthermore, vitamin E is an important antioxidant that can interrupt the propagation of free radical chain reactions. Specifically, vitamin E (α-tocopherol, an isoform of vitamin E) efficiently detoxifies hydroxyl, perhydroxyl and superoxide free radicals, whereas γ-tocopherol (another isoform of vitamin E) appears to be more efficiently implicated in trapping NO radicals. In addition, α-tocopherol exerts non-antioxidant properties, including the modulation of cell signalling and immune functions, regulation of transcription and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, Ω-3 fatty acid electrophilic derivatives formed by COX-2 in activated macrophages can stimulate the nuclear respiratory factor (Nrf), which induces the transcription of neuroprotective and antioxidant-related genes and can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) for an anti-inflammatory response. In animal studies, EPA and DHA have proved to be endogenous ligands of the retinoid X receptor (RXR), with positive effects on neurogenesis. Additionally, in 2008, Salvati et al reported evidence of accelerated myelination in DHA-treated and EPA-treated animals. Moreover, DHA and EPA have been reported to significantly decrease the levels of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-13, which have a significant role in the migration of lymphocytes into the central nervous system by inducing the disruption of the blood brain barrier, an important step in the formation of MS lesions. Based on the aforementioned observations, specific PUFAs and antioxidant vitamins fulfil the criterion of biological plausibility and have the potential to diminish the severity and activity of MS symptoms, potentially even promoting recovery (remyelination). PLP10 represents a formulation consisting of the aforementioned ingredients (EPA/DHA omega-3, LA/GLA omega-6 PUFA, other structured molecules as MUFA and anti ROS/RNS antioxidants) tested on relapsing remitting MS patients (Phase II and an ongoing Phase III). We contacted a 30-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept clinical study at the CING with 20 patients randomly assigned to receive PLP10 and 20 placebo. PLP10 treatment significantly reduced the ARR by 72%, and the risk of sustained disability progression by 86% compared to placebo when patients on natalizumab were excluded; and without any adverse or significant side effects.
References Pantzaris MC, Loukaides GN, Ntzani EE, Patrikios IS. A novel oral nutraceutical formula of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with vitamins (PLP10) in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of concept clinical trial. BMJ Open 2013; 3:e002170. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002170
University of South Australia, Adelaide, Xin-Fu Zhou
Xin-Fu Zhou completed his Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.) from Third Military Medical University from the year 1973 – 1977 he completed his PhD, Biochemistry, Thesis pass without revision from 1987 – 1990 from the University of Melbourne and currently he is working as at Professor at University of South Australia. His research interests are Molecular Biology and Biochemistry. He currently works at the School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia. Xin-Fu does research in Cell Biology, Neuroscience and Physiology.
Novel Edaravone formulation based on self-nano micellizing solid dispersion strategy for enhancement of oral bioavailability and reversal of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease mice model
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegeneraive disorder that lacks any disease-modifying drug for the prevention and treatment. The drug development for this this disease has become a holy grail as 99.6% failure rate is encounteredin clinical trials.Edaravone, an approved free radical scavenger for ischemic stroke, is proved its potential against the AD by targeting multiple key pathologies including amyloid-beta, tau phosphorylation, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. The poor oral bioavailability (BA) could be a major hurdle for its clinical development. The novel Edaravone formulation (NEF) is developed using self-nanomicellizing solid dispersion strategy to enhance the oral BA. From the screening of polymers based on their potential for improving the solubility, Soluplus® (SOL) was selected. The novel Edaravone formulation (NEF) containing EDR and SOL (1:5) resulted in the highest enhancement in aqueous solubility (17.53-fold) due to amorphization, hydrogen bonding interaction and micellization. Moreover, the NEF demonstrated significant improvement in intestinal permeability and dissolution profile of EDR. Furthermore, the oral BA of NEF showed 10.2, 16.1 and 14.8-fold enhancement compared to EDR suspension at 45.92, 137.77 and 413.32 µmol/kg dose. Besides, our data confirms non-toxicity up to 413.32 µmol/kgdose after 3 months and its potential to reverse AD-like cognitive deficits of APP/PS1 mice in dose dependent manner. Therefore, NEF could be used as a potential candidate for the treatment of AD.
Chiang Mai University, Thailand
SurapolNatakankitkul is one of the scientists conducting Research on Phellinusmushrooms at the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. His research focuses on pharmacological therapy by using Phellinus mushroom. He received his PhD in Biotechnology & Analytical Chemistry at Innsbruck University, Austria in 1991. He received his Master in Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy from Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok in 1996. He has extensive experiences on quality assurance in drug, cosmetic, food and natural products; hospital administration and pharmaceutical industry management; ISO, GMP, HA, HACCP, MS-QWL, TQA Auditor; drug profile and forensic science specialist. He has published numerous articles and research papers.
Miracle Medicinal Mushrooms: Biological activities of P.linteus on immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects
Mushrooms Phellinus linteus (PL) are used in traditional Asian medicine for preventing against different types of cancerswith a variety of biological activities, including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.The activity of P. linteus and its extracts is associated with the presence of polysaccharides, predominantly β-glucans, their peptide complexes polyphenol and triterpenoids. Polysaccharide fractions isolated from P. linteus were found to be related to the increased activity of immune cells such as the production of cytokines by macrophages and B-cells or the increased cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells. Moreover, P. linteus was found to modulate the expression or activity of various genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and chemoprevention.We recently demonstrated that P. linteus and its extracts inhibited proliferation and colony formation of highly invasive human breast cancer. We also presented the extracts and fractions from PL show diverse pharmacological mechanisms, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuro- and hepatic-protective, antidiabetic, immunomodulating, antibacterial, and antioxidation in multiple in vitro and in vivo tests.RP-UPLC-UV- ESI-MS methods were optimized for Phellinus analysis.Therefore, applying polyphenols and triterpenoid standards of natural Phellinus mushroom showed the chromatographic fingerprint for identification of bioactive compounds and immune support in traditional medicine information. Finally, P. linteus extracts demonstrated tumor regression in independent case reports, suggesting that an extract from P. linteus or a dietary supplement based on the extract from P. linteus may have potential use for the alternative treatment of cancer.
Mohammad Umar Hafeez
Medical University of Vienna International, UAE
Self-medicating behavior of urban Pakistani population toward psychotropic agents and its correlates
Will be updated shortly
The trend of self-medication is increasing due to various factors and is associated with many complications. A cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate self-medication trend in an urban community and its correlates such as level of education, gender and behaviour of using psychoactive medicines
A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from different locations of Lahore, provincial capital of Punjab, Pakistan.
The trend of self-medication was noted about difference in educational level and in gender. This study showed that total 110 respondents, all literate, were found to be self-medicating, and their educational status was as 73.13%primary, 63.15%secondary, 61.12%higher secondary and 62.15% in University. In this sample 74.99% were males and 48.00% were females. Twenty-nine (26.36%) of the total sample were found to be using psychoactive agents without consulting the physician.
The trend of self-medication was 10% higher in individuals having primary level education, whereas there was not much difference of self-medication trend in other levels of education. The main reasons involved in self-medication trend were socio-economic status, medicine accessibility, religious and cultural beliefs, lack of awareness about risks associated with medicine, non-prescription sale of medicines and previous medication experience. The trend of self-medication of psychotropic agents is quite significant.
Safraz Mohamed Omer
James Cook University, Australia
Effect of metformin on lower limb ischemia in a novel mouse model of peripheral artery disease
Safraz Mohamed Omer is a PhD studentnearing completion at the Queensland Research Centre for Peripheral Vascular Diseases(QRCPVD), College of Medicine & Dentistry, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. Safraz’s research involves undertaking preclinical trials as part of translational research initiatives within the QRCPVD.Beforehis current position he was a graduate researcher at the Translational Research Institute, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, Australia, where he received a Masters by Research in Applied Biomedical Science. Prior to this, Safrazhas undertakenand received a degree in Bachelors of Biomedical Science (Honours) from the University of Lincoln, United Kingdom.Safraz’s main research interest is in the preclinical investigation of potential pharmacological interventions for diseases with the aim of translating to clinical trials to eventually improve quality of patient lives. Safraz is keen to establish a postdoctoral career in biomedical research following his PhD and welcomes interests and enquiries from potential employers or collaborators. Safraz’s enjoys travelling and experiencing new places and has lived in Srilanka, UK and Australia.
Metformin is a biguanide used for managing hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Recent reports suggest potential for metformin to be repurposed for treating cardiovascular diseases. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a vascular disease usually caused by atherosclerosis restricting blood supply to the legs. We previously established a new mouse model which simulates PAD. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of metformin administration on lower limb blood supply within the novel mouse model of PAD.Limb ischemia was induced in apolipoprotein E deficient mice (n=31), through a novel procedure. The control group (n=15) received vehicle control and the experimental group (n=16) received 300 mg/kg/day of metformin for 4 weeks through oral gavage. Limb perfusion was assessed by Laser Doppler imaging. Protein and gene expressionassociated with revascularisation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS), oxidative stress (thioredoxin interacting protein, TXNIP) and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma cofactor 1α, PGC1α)were assessed by Western blotandquantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Nitric oxide levels in plasma was assessed by a colorimetric assay. Limb blood supply was significantly greater in mice receiving metformin than those allocated vehicle controls after 4 weeks (mean perfusion units 0.72±0.03 and 0.60 ±0.03, respectively, p=0.004). Relative protein amounts within the ischaemic gastrocnemius muscle of mice receiving metformin demonstrated that phosphorylated eNOS expression and PGC1a expression were significantly upregulated (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively) whereas TXNIP expression was significantly (p=0.04) downregulated. TXNIP gene expression was significantly downregulated (p=0.02) and PGC1α gene expression was significantly upregulated (0.03). Plasma nitric oxide levels were greater in mice receiving metformin than controls (8.44±2.02µM and 3.77±0.50µM respectively, p=0.04).Metformin administration improved hind limb blood supply in the new mouse model of PAD through modulation of nitric oxide, oxidative stress and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, metformin has potential to be repurposed and translated for improving perfusionto ischaemic muscles in PAD patients.
Kuwait University , Kuwait
poster: H2S donor GYY4137 prevents and ameliorates thermal hyperalgesia, and cold and mechanical allodynia in a murine model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain
Bedoor Qabazard is currently an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Pharmacy (FOP), Kuwait University. She joined the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in 2013 after completing her graduate studies in the United Kingdom, King’s College London. Dr. Qabazard’s specialty is in pharmacology, molecular toxicology and toxicogenomics. Dr. Qabazard obtained her BSc (Hons) in Pharmacology from FOP, Kuwait University in 2002. She obtained her MSc degree (Hons) from the department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University in 2007, and completed her PhD degree at King’s College London in 2013. Dr. Qabazard worked as a pharmacist in the in-patient unit in Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital in Kuwait 2002-2006. She is a member of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). Dr. Qabazard is interested in toxicology research and in studying the biological significance of hydrogen sulfide in living systems.
Introduction: Paclitaxel is an important component in the standard chemotherapeutic regimens for treating metastatic breast cancer and other solid tumors. However, it can cause painful peripheral neuropathy, a common, dose-limiting side effect. Recently, a putative role for the gaseous mediator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in nociception modulation was suggested. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of a slow-release H2S donor, GYY4137, to prevent or alleviate hyperalgesia and allodynia in a mouse model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain.
Methods: Female BALB/c mice (20–30 g, 8-12 weeks old) were used according to the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Paclitaxel (2 mg/kg), or its vehicle, was administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection to mice once daily for 5 consecutive days to induce painful peripheral neuropathy. GYY4137 (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was given concurrently with paclitaxel for 5 days to evaluate a potential protective effect against thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia and mechanical allodynia (prophylactic regimen). In a separate set of experiments, GYY4137 (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or gabapentin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were given to paclitaxel-treated mice to evaluate the ability of GYY4137 to treat established paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was assessed every 30 minutes for 3 hours (therapeutic regimen). The effect of GYY4137 on the antitumor activity of paclitaxel was also evaluated in vitro using breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), and plasma H2S levels were determined using zinc-trapping assay.
Results: Daily administration of GYY4137 together with paclitaxel prevented the development of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. GYY4137 significantly and dose-dependently raised the reaction latencies in mice with paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia during the 3-hour test period. GYY4137 treatment did not interfere with the antitumor activity of paclitaxel; rather, synergistic cytotoxicity was observed with the drug combination.
Conclusions: The slow-release H2S donor GYY4137 prevents the development of paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia, and ameliorates paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia without reducing its antitumor activity. GYY4137 may be a useful agent for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy
Sarraf Deependra Prasad
Poster: Effect of Honey on Rate of Healing of Socket after Tooth Extraction in Rabbits
Will be updated shortly
Objectives: Honey is considered as the oldest known wound dressing. Its wound healing properties is not fully established till today. Some preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing in various types of wounds. Reports on the effect of honey on healing of socket after tooth extraction in rabbits are rare. Therefore, the present experimental study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction in rabbits.
Methods: An experimental study was conducted in six New Zealand White rabbits. Extraction of first premolar tooth on both sides of lower jaw was done under anesthesia produced by ketamine and Xylazine. Honey was applied in one socket (test group) and normal saline (control group) in the opposite socket. The intervention was continued for two more days. On 7th day, biopsy was taken from the extraction socket and histopathological examination was done. Student’s t-test was used for comparison between the groups and differences were considered to be statistically significant at p value less than 0.05.
Results: There was a significant difference between control group and test group in terms of fibroblast proliferation (p = 0.0019) and bony trabeculae formation (p=0.0003). Inflammatory cells were also observed in both groups and it was not significant (p=1.0). Overlying epithelium was hyperplastic in both the groups.
Conclusion: The study showed that local application of honey promoted the rapid healing process particularly by increasing fibroblast proliferation and bony trabeculae.
Gajendra Prasad Raunia
B.P.Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal
Poster: Antibiotic usage and its culture sensitivity pattern in urinary tract infections at tertiary hospital in eastern Nepal
Prof .Gajendra Prasad Rauniar, Head of dept. of clinical pharmacology and Therapeutics at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Nepal. He is teaching MBBS,BDS and MD(pharmacology) students since last 20 years on organ based , partial problem based . He is actively conducting drug utilization, interventional, antimicrobial study. He is also in-charge for Regional pharmacovigilance monitoring centre at BPKIHS. He did his MBBS from Ranchi medical college and hospital and MD (pharmacology) from JIPMER ,Pondicherry, India.
The presence of microbial pathogens in the urinary tract is UTI (Urinary Tract Infection). In BPKIHS, each year there are around 1000 cases of UTIs. Antibiotic is empirically started after sending culture/sensitivity (c/s) with intention to change antibiotic if c/s demands.OBJECTIVES: To see the antimicrobial prescribing pattern and c/s pattern of UTI inpatients of BPKIHS together with their socio-demographic and laboratory profile.
METHODS: It was a Retrospective study of past one-year. As a convenience sampling, all available inpatient-records from Medical-Record Section were extensively searched for the key word “Diagnosis UTI”. The relevant data were entered in Microsoft Excel-sheet and analyzed with IBM SPSS 21. Ethical clearance was taken from the IRC before study.
RESULTS: There were 86 cases from 4 different wards. There was slight female preponderance (51.16%). Fifty-five (63.95%) cases were complicated. Fever (75.51%) was the most common symptom. Only 20% were tachycardic but 90% were tachypnic. Leucocytosis (59.26%), urine albumin within 30-100 mg/dl (33.85%) and >5 Urine WBC/hpf (80.26%) were seen. Ceftiaxone (50.60%) was the most commonly prescribed empirical antibiotics, followed by Cefixime (9.64%). Fourteen (16.27%) cases were culture positive. E. coli was the most (78.57%) common pathogen grown. In culture sensitivity study, Amikacin (42.85%) was the most sensitive antibiotic.
CONCLUSION: Eighty-six UTI inpatients were identified in the last year. Fever and Tachypnoea were very common. Leucocytosis, 1+ proteinuria and urine WBC>5/hpf were frequently seen. Ceftriaxone was the most common antibiotic prescribed. E. coli was the most common pathogen grown and Amikacin was the most sensitive antibiotic.
Kolon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., South Korea
Workshop Title: Population pharmacokinetics and optimal sampling strategy for model-based precision dosing of bepotastine, histamine antagonist in pediatric patients
WILL BE UPDATED SHORTLY
WILL BE UPDATED SHORTLY